Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (1994) follow-up, “ICPD+5”

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Year of adoption: 1999
Year of entry into force:
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18. Governments of developing countries and countries with economies in transition, with the assistance of the
international community, especially donors, should:
(a) Continue to support declines in infant and child mortality rates by strengthening infant and child health
programmes that emphasize improved prenatal care and nutrition, including breastfeeding, unless it is medically
contraindicated, universal immunization, oral rehydration therapies, clean water sources, infectious disease
prevention, reduction of exposure to toxic substances, and improvements in household sanitation; and by
strengthening maternal health services, quality family-planning services to help couples to time and space births,
and efforts to prevent transmission of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases;
(b) Strengthen health-care systems to respond to priority demands on them, taking into account the financial
realities of countries and the need to ensure that resources are focused on the health needs of people in poverty;

(c) Determine the causes of the stagnation or increase in mortality levels among adult populations and
develop special policies and programmes on health promotion where such stagnation or increase is observed,
especially among women in reproductive age groups and males in productive age groups;
(d) Ensure that poverty eradication programmes are targeted particularly at females and that priority is given
to female-headed households;
(e) Develop innovative ways to provide more effective assistance to strengthen families in extreme poverty,
such as providing micro-credit for poor families and individuals;
(f) Undertake policies and programmes that seek to ensure a level of consumption that meets the basic needs
of the poor and disadvantaged.

19. Measures should be taken to strengthen food, nutrition and agricultural policies and programmes, and fair
trade relations, with special attention to the creation and strengthening of food security at all levels.

20. Governments should promote and protect the rights of indigenous people with particular regard to their
cultures, resources, belief systems, land rights and languages.