Venezuela

Constitución de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela [Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela], adopted and enacted 1999.
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Article 19: The State shall guarantee to every individual, in accordance with the progressive principle and without discrimination of any kind, no renounceable, indivisible and interdependent enjoyment and exercise of human rights.

Article 20: Everyone has the right to the free development of his or her own personality, subject only to the limitations deriving from the rights of others and public and social order.

Article 21: Al persons are equal before the law, and, consequently:
1. No discrimination based on race, sex, creed or social standing shall be permitted, nor, in general, any discrimination with the intent or effect of nullifying or encroaching upon the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on equal terms, of the rights and liberties of every individual.

Article 43: The right to life is inviolable.

Article 44: Personal liberty is inviolable, …

Article 46: Everyone is entitled to respect for his or her physical, mental and moral integrity, therefore:

(1) No person shall be subjected to penalties, tortures, cruelty, inhuman or degrading treatment. Every victim of torture or cruel, inhumane or degrading treatment effected or tolerated by agents of the State has the right to rehabilitation.

Article 60: Every person is entitled to protection of his or her honor, private life, intimacy, self-image, confidentiality and reputation.

Article 75: The State shall protect families as a natural association in society, and as the fundamental space for the overall development of persons.

Article 76: Motherhood and fatherhood are fully protected, whatever the marital status ofthe mother or father. Couples have the right to decide freely and responsibly how many children* they wish to conceive, and are entitled to access to the information and means necessary to guarantee the exercise of this right.

Article 79: Young people have the right and duty to be active participants in the development process.

Article 80: The State shall guarantee senior citizens* the full exercise of their rights and guarantees. The State, with the joint participation of families and society, is obligated to respect their human dignity, autonomy and to guarantee them full care and social security benefits to improve and guarantee their quality of life. Pension and retirement benefits granted through the social security system shall not be less than the urban minimum salary. Senior citizens* shall be guaranteed to have the right to a proper work, if they indicate a desire to work and are capable to.

Article 81: Any person with disability or special needs has the right to the full and autonomous exercise of his or her abilities and to its integration into the family and community. The State, with the joint participation of families and society, guarantees them respect for their human dignity, equality of opportunity and satisfactory working conditions, and shall promote their training, education and access to employment appropriate to their condition, in accordance with law. It is recognized that deaf persons have the right to express themselves and communicate through the Venezuelan sign language.

Article 82: Every person has the right to adequate, safe and comfortable, hygienic housing, with appropriate essential basic services, including a habitat such as to humanize family, neighborhood and community relations.

Article 83: Health is a fundamental social right and the responsibility of the State, which shall guarantee it as part of the right to life. The State shall promote and develop policies oriented toward improving the quality of life, common welfare and access to services. All persons have the right to protection of health, as well as the duty to participate actively in
the furtherance and protection of the same, and to comply with such health and hygiene measures as may be established by law, and in accordance with international conventions and treaties signed and ratified by the Republic.

Article 86: All persons are entitled to Social Security as a nonprofit public service to guarantee health and protection in contingencies of maternity, fatherhood, illness, invalidity, catastrophic illness, disability, special needs, occupational risks, loss of employment, unemployment, old age, widowhood, loss of parents, housing, burdens deriving from family life, and any other social welfare circumstances.

Article 87: All persons have the right and duty to work.

Article 89: Work is a social fact and shall enjoy the protection of the State. The law shall make the necessary provisions for improving the material, moral and intellectual conditions of workers*.

Article 101: The State guarantees the issuance, receiving and circulation of cultural information.

Article 102: Education is a human right and a fundamental social duty; it is democratic, free of charge and obligatory.

Article 119: The State recognizes the existence of native peoples and communities, their social, political and economic organization, their cultures, practices and customs, languages and religions, as well as their habitat and original rights to the lands they ancestrally and traditionally occupy, and which are necessary to develop and guarantee their way of life.

Article 127: It is the right and duty of each generation to protect and maintain the environment for its own benefit and that of the world of the future.

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